Introduction Geography & Climate History Hamedan today

1.1. Introduction

HAMEDAN province covers an area of 19,493 km² and its population is estimated of 1.8 million people.
Hemadan province includes 8 counties of Hamedan, Malayer, Toyserkan, Nahavand, Asad Abad, Kabudrahang, Bahar, Razan.
There are also some major cities including, Laljin, Meryanj, Famenin, Saleh Abad, Ghorveh Darjazin, Sarkan, Samen, Firoozan, Azandrian, Damagh, Farsfoj, Ghahavand and Joorghan.
Malayer county has a population of around 310,000 people, Nahavand county has a population of 200,000 people, Hamadan County has a population of 700,000 thousand people, Tooserkan and Asadabad each have a population of around 150,000, Kabutare ahang, Razan, and Bahar each have a population of between 120,000 - 140,000 people. Kurdish, Azeri, Luri, and Persian language are spoken amongst the people of Hamadan Province, where Azeri is more popular in northern and eastern areas and Kurdish are mostly spoken in the west. In the central parts likeHamadan County and parts of Tooserkan, Persian is more common. Luri is spoken in southern parts of Malayer country and all of Nahavand .
In Hamadan county (which mainly includes Hamadan city), 80% of the people identified their language as Persian, 12% Azeri and 8% Luri, Kurdish and Laki.
In the counties of Hamadan province, the population of Nahavand with approximately 99% speaking Luri and Laki. The population of Malayer approximately 75% speak Persian, 15% Luri and Laki and 10% others. The population of Tooserkan county, the majority of the population is Luri and Laki. In Asadabad county, the population 63% were Persian, 14% Azeri, 19% Kurdish and 4% Luri and Laki. In Kabudarahang, the population with 90% speaking Azeri, 5% Persian and another 5% Kurdish. In Razan county, the population with 99.47% of the residents speaking Azeri and 0.53 speaking Kurdish. In Bahar country was 127600 with 86.3% speaking Azeri, 7.9% speaking Kurdish, 4.5% speaking Persian and 1.3% speaking Luri.
The divisions are shown on the map as well as the center of each county and the neighbor provinces.

Hamedan has been considered as sister city for Kulyab, Tajikestan. Hamedan central coordination locates in 34.7982°N 48.5146°E.
Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities and one of the oldest in the world.
Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the Midwest part of Iran. The city is 1850 meters above sea level.
The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 km southwest of Tehran. The main symbols of this city are Ganjnameh board, Avicenna monument and Baba Taher monument.

1.2. Geography and Climate

The province lies in an elevated region, with the 'Alvand' mountains, running from the North West to the south west. These are part of the Zagros mountain range of Iran.
Hamedan enjoys temperate warm summers and relatively cold winters.
Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year. The various air currents of this region are: the north and North West winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and bring rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn and the local winds that develops due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region.
Hamadan is in the vicinity of the Alvand Mountains and has a cold, mountainous climate, with snowy winters. In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below -30°C on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild, pleasant, and mostly sunny.

1.3. History

Hamedan province is one of the most ancient parts of Iran and its civilization. Relics of this area confirm this fact. Today's Hamedan is what is left of Ecbatana, The Medes' capital before they formed a union with the Persians. The poet Ferdowsi says that Ecbatana was built by King Jamshid.
According to historical records, there was once a castle in this city by the name of Haft Hessar (Seven Walls) which had a thousand rooms and its grandeur equalled that of the Babylon Tower.
The structures of city are related to Diya Aku, a King of the Medes from 700 BC. According to Greek records, this territory was called 'Ekbatan' and 'Hegmataneh' by this King, thus transformed into a huge capital.
During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon became capital of Persia, and Hamedan became the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamedan as well.
In the year 633 when the war of Nahavand took place and Hamedan came into the hands of the invading Arabs, at times it thrived and at times it declined and witnessed hardships. During theBuwayhids, it suffered plenty of damages. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital fromBaghdad to Hamedan once again.
The city of Hamaden was always at risk during the rise and fall of powers. It was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. But during the Safavid era the city thrived once more. In the 18th century, Hamedan surrendered to the Ottomans, but Hamedan was retaken by Nader Shah Afshari, and under the peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans it was returned to Iran.
The city of Hamedan lay on the Silk Road and even in recent centuries enjoyed good prospects in commerce and trade being on the main road network in the western region of Iran.
According to local Jewish traditions, the City of Hamedan is mentioned in the Bible, as the capital of Ancient Persia in the days of KingAhasuerus in the Book of Esther. It was then known as Shushan. The Tombs of Mordecai and Esther are located in modern-day Hamedan
The Cultural Heritage of Iran lists 442 sites of historical and cultural significance located in Hamedan, thus making the province a rich one in terms of historical attractions.
During World War I, the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.
Some of the most popular sites of the city include:

  • Tomb of Baba Taher the poet
  • Tomb of Avicenna
  • Tomb of Esther and Mordechai
  • Ali Sadr (Ardeles) cave
  • Waterfall of Ganjnameh
  • Stone Lion of Hamedan
  • Abass Abad jangle(Baugh)
  • Ester & Mordekhai tomb
  • Gonbad-e Alavian
  • Hamadan Stone Lion
  • Qorban Building
  • Alavian Tomb
  • Eram Park
  • Imam (pahlavi) Sq
  • Alvand Mountain
  • Alavian Tomb
  • Baba Tahir Mausleum
  • Excavated Ancient Ekbatana City
  • Hamadan Museum of Natural History
  • Lalejin
  • Ganj Nameh inscriptions of Darius The Great
  • Hegmatane (Ekbatan) City of 5000 years ago
  • Grand Bazzar of Mozafarieh
  • Tomb of Esther and Mordechai
  • Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina) Ibn Sina mausoleum
  • Estakhr e Abbas Abad (an over-the-hill lake with a magnificent view to the city
  • Nazari House
  • Mohammadi House

1.4. Hamedan today

The other major cities of HAMEDAN province include:

1.1. TOYSERKAN: Toyserkan is a city located about 100 km south of Hamadan, in western Iran. However, it was formerly called Roud Avar. Latter was ruined in the invasion of the Mongols and its people fled to Toy (or Tuy) village, afterwards called Toyserkan because of its proximity to Serkan (a town located northwest of Toyserkan). The ancient hills of Baba Kamal, Roudlar, Shahrestaneh, the remains of a Sassanid city in Velashjerd, the Saljuk Dome named after prophet Habakkuk, the Safavid building of Shaykh Ali Khani School and the Qajar period’s covered bazaar, are all indicative of Toyserkan’s historical background.

1.2. NAHAVAND: Nahavand, is a town in Hamadan Province in Iran. It is located south of Hamadan, east of Malayer and northwest of Borujerd. Nahavand is one of the oldest existing cities in Iran. The city was founded by Darius I the Great, in Media along with the two other Achaemenid cities of Apamea and Xerxes. The city was a center of Chosroes I's empire.
It is the site of the Battle of Nihawand in 642 that completed the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the Islamic conquest of Iran. Natives of Nahavand include Benjamin Nahawandi, who was a key figure in the development of Karaite Judaism in the Early Middle Ages, and 8th-century astronomer Ahmad Nahavandi, who worked at the Academy of Gundishapur. The Persian hero Feroze Nahavandi was born here.
Nahavand has an estimated population of 80,000. Nahavand also gives its name to the musical mode (maqam) Nahwand in Arabic, Iranian and Turkish music. This mode is known for its wide variety of Western sounding melodies.

1.3. MALAYER: Malayer is a city in the Hamedan Province of Iran. The second largest city of the Hamedan province, in Western Iran, it has a history of rug weaving and has some popular parks. It had an estimated population of 200,000. Malayer is located between Hamedan and Khorramabad and is in 380 km South West of Tehran.
One of the notable aspects of the city in the 1960s was a series of beautifully decorated horse and buggies. Any day of the week about twenty-five such horse and carriages were mostly parked in the town center with ready drivers to serve visitors and the locals. The most popular destination for carriages was the City Park, called "Park-e Malyer". "Park-e Malayer" was another City trademark well known in the Hamedan province. The park, situated a couple of miles outside the City, contained a number of small lakes, lush vegetation, colorful ducks and many trees and shrubbery. Hamedan province is situated in a semi-arid region. Thus "Park e Malayer" with its natural beauty and lush vegetation was a serene, inviting environment in the region. During hot summers many people would spend some time in Malayer to enjoy the "Horse and Buggy" ride and rest at the park. People in Malayer speak Malayeri dialectic which is related to Lurian (Lori_dialects) language. "Park-e Malayer" has been named from ten years ago "Park e Seifieh" that refers to the name of a Ghajar prince (Seyfodoleh) who built the park around 75 years ago.

1.4. ASAD ABAD: Asadabad is a city in located in western Iran. It is known as the birth place of Seyyed Jamaleddin Asadabadi. It is the capital of Asadabad County. The ethnic composition of Asadabad, simliar to other cities in Hamadan province is of mixed ethnic groups,with Persian and Kurdish majority and Azeri, Lur and Lak minorities.

1.5. BAHAR: Bahar is a town in the Hamadan Province of north-west Iran with Persian and Azeri speaking majority. It is the capital of Bahar County. Most of the people are farmers and potato and watermelon is cultivated mostly by them. It has mid summers and cold winter with high rate of snowfall. Ayatollah Bahari is a famous clergyman whose shrine is located in Bahar.
Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Handicrafts: Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and beautiful carpets.
Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in the city of Hamadan alone.
Legend has it that the biblical Esther is buried in Hamadan.
The scientist and writer known in the west as Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina) is buried in Hamadan.
The 11th century Persian poet Baba Taher is also interred in Hamadan.
It is the birthplace of Badi` al-Zaman al-Hamadhani, author of the Maqamat.
The residents of Hamadan are very proud of the city's historical heritage. Another source of their pride is Avicenna (aka Bouali, Buali, Ebn-e-sina, Pur-e-Sina) who is buried in Hamadan. Primary schools, high schools, and the main city's university are named after him. Even shops and businesses are named after him. Bouali Street is a very busy one and a favorite pastime of Hamadanians is to stroll up and down the street where they frequently bump into their acquaintances. The city has a population of around 600,000 including its outer suburbs. Hamadan is generally a prosperous city; the northern districts are mainly lower middle-class or working class, whereas the southern half of city is where the upper middle class and the rich live
PAS Hamedan F.C. participates in the IPL and is Hamadan's highest status football club which were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution of PAS Tehran F.C.
Universities of Hamedan include Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan Medical University, Islamic Azad University of Hamadan and Hamadan University of Technology.
The natural history museum of Hamedan is a unique collection of plenty types of animal, plant and natural types of Iran and parts of the world.
The 'Hamedan museum of natural history' is a private agency. Its task is to promote interest in, and knowledge and research on, the origins and development of the universe and Earth, on the plant and animal worlds and on the biology and natural environment of human beings. Their vision is to enhance everyone´s knowledge about nature and its diversity.
Operations are based on their great collections, with them as a base they create knowledge development and dissemination of knowledge by constantly broadening perspective.